- Ph.D. in Acoustics, Department of Ocean Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2002
- B.Sc.(Hons.) in Physics, National University of Singapore, 1994
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Awards and Honours
- Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers (PECASE) 2007
- ONR Young Investigator Award (2007)
- R. Bruce Lindsay Award (2006)
- MIT T. Francis Ogilvie Young Investigator Lectureship in Ocean Engineering (2006)
- ONR Postdoctoral Award in Ocean Acoustics (2002-2004)
- Young Investigator Keynote Address, Acoustical Society of America (ASA) 75th Anniversary Celebration, New York (May, 2004)
- Best Student Paper Awards, Acoustical Society of America Meetings:
- DSO National Laboratories Graduate Scholarship, Singapore (1998)
- Current Graduate Students : Duong Tran, Fan Wu, Alexander Bohn, Wei Huang, Delin Wang
- Current Undergraduate Students : Alexander Zorn
- Former Students : Dr. Mark Andrews (PhD. 2009), Dr. Zheng "Roger" Gong (PhD. 2012), Ninos Donabed (M.Sc., 2006) , Ameya Galinde (M.Sc., 2007), Daniel Cocuzzo (B. Sc., 2008), Saumitro DasGupta (B. Sc. 2010)
- Former Postdoctoral Associates : Dr. Elizabeth Kusel (2007-2008), Dr. Mark Andrews (2009)
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- ECE G398 - Wave Based Remote Sensing and Imaging/Acoustic Sensing and Imaging (Graduate)
- ECE 7203 - Complex Variables and Differential Equations
Graduate level calculus course on integration of complex functions and solution methods for partial differential equations.
- ECE 3468 - Probability, Noise and Stochastic Processes (Undergraduate)
- ECE 3464 - Linear Systems (Undergraduate)
- GE U111 - High Tech Tools and Toys Lab
Undergraduate level course offered through the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Northeastern University (2004).
The course is an introduction to computing in Matlab and C++ that also introduces students to the basics of remote sensing with experiments conducted using ultrasound.
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Previous Work Experience
- Postdoctoral Associate at MIT Department of Ocean Engineering (2002-2004)
Conducted 2 major experiments and research under the ONR-sponsored Acoustic Clutter (Geoclutter) Program to examine the dominant source of long range sonar clutter in continental shelf environments.
- Research Engineer at DSO National Laboratories, Singapore (1994-1998)
Examined the characteristics of sound propagation in shallow waters. Conducted experiments and modelling to study the impact of the environment on sound propagation. Also investigated various inverse methods to recover properties of the environment through match field processing and travel time inversions.
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Selected Journal Publications:
- Gong Z, Jain AD, Tran D, Yi DH, Wu F, Zorn A, Ratilal P and Makris N, "Ecosystem Scale Acoustic Sensing Reveals Humpback Whale Behavior Synchronous with Herring Spawning Processes and Re-Evaluation Finds No Effect of Sonar on Humpback Song Occurrence in the Gulf of Maine in Fall 2006," PLoS ONE 9(10): e104733. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0104733 (2014)
- D. Tran, W. Huang, A. Bohn, D. Wang, Z. Gong, N. Makris and P. Ratilal, "Using a coherent hydrophone array for observing sperm whale range, classification, and shallow-water dive profiles,"J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 135(6), 3352-3363 (2014).
- A. Jain, A. Ignisca, D. Yi, P. Ratilal, and N. Makris, "Feasibility of Ocean Acoustic Waveguide Remote Sensing (OAWRS) of Atlantic Cod with Seafloor Scattering Limitations,"Remote Sens. Vol. 6(1), 180-208; doi:10.3390/rs6010180 (2014).
- Z. Gong, D. Tran and P. Ratilal,"Comparing passive source localization and tracking approaches with a towed horizontal receiver array in an ocean waveguide,"J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 134, 3705-3720 (2013).
- Z. Gong, T. Chen, P. Ratilal, N. Makris, "Temporal coherence of the acoustic field forward propagated through a continental shelf with random internal waves"J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 134, 3476-3485 (2013).
- D. Tran, M. Andrews and P. Ratilal, "Probability Distribution for Energy of Saturated Broadband Ocean Acoustic Transmission: Results from Gulf of Maine 2006 Experiment,"J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 132, 3659-2672 (2012).
- S. Jagannathan, E. Kusel, P. Ratilal, N. Makris, "Scattering from extended targets in range-dependent fluctuating ocean-waveguides with clutter from theory and experiments,"J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 132, 680-693 (2012).
- M. Andrews, Z. Gong and P. Ratilal, "Effects of multiple scattering, attenuation and dispersion in waveguide sensing of fish,"J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 130, 1253-1271 (2011).
- S. Jagannathan, B. Horn, P. Ratilal and N. Makris, "Force estimation and prediction from time-varying density images,"IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis & Machine Intelligence, Vol. 33, 1132-1146, (2011).
- Z. Gong, M. Andrews, S. Jagannathan, R. Patel, N.C. Makris, and P. Ratilal, "Lowfrequency target strength and abundance of shoaling Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) in the Gulf of Maine during the Ocean Acoustic Waveguide Remote Sensing 2006
Experiment," J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 127, 104-123 (2010).
- I. Bertsatos, M. Zanolin, P. Ratilal, T. Chen, and N. Makris, "General second-order covariance of Gaussian maximum likelihood estimates applied to passive source localization in fluctuating waveguides", J. Acoust. Soc. Am. Vol. 128, 2635-2651 (2010).
- M. Andrews, Z. Gong and P. Ratilal, "High-resolution population density imaging of random scatterers with the matched filter scattered field variance," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. Vol. 126, 1057-1068 (2009).
- E. T. Kusel and P. Ratilal, "Effect of incident field refraction on scattered field from vertically extended cylindrical targets in range-dependent ocean waveguides," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. Vol 125, 1930-1936 (2009).
- N. Makris, P. Ratilal, S. Jagannathan, Z. Gong, M. Andrews, I. Bertsatos, O. Godoe, R. Nero, M. Jech, "Critical Population Density Triggers Rapid Formation of Vast Oceanic Fish Shoals," Science, Vol. 323, No. 5922, 1734-1737 (March 27, 2009).
- S. Jagannathan, I. Bersatos, D. Symonds, T. Chen, H. Nia, A. Jain, M. Andrews, Z. Gong,
R. Nero, L. Ngor, M. Jech, O. Godo, S. Lee, P. Ratilal, and N. Makris, "Ocean acoustic
waveguide remote sensing (OAWRS) of marine ecosystems," Invited paper, Mar. Ecol.
Prog. Ser., Vol. 395, 137-160 (2009).
- M. Andrews, T. Chen and P. Ratilal, "Empirical dependence of acoustic transmission scintillation statistics on bandwidth, frequency and range in New Jersey continental shelf," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 125, 111-124 (2009).
- T. Chen, P. Ratilal and N. C. Makris, "Temporal coherence after multiple forward scattering through random three-dimensional inhomogeneities in an ocean waveguide," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 124, 2812-2822 (2008).
- A. Galinde, N. Donabed, M. Andrews, S. Lee, N. C. Makris and P. Ratilal, "Range-dependent waveguide scattering model calibrated for bottom reverberation in a continental shelf environments," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 123, 1270-1281 (2008).
- P. Ratilal, M. Andrews, N. Donabed, A. Galinde, C. Rappaport and D. Fenneman, "Model for continuously scanning ultrasound vibrometer sensing displacements of randomly rough vibrating surfaces," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 121, 863-878 (2007).
- N.C. Makris, P. Ratilal, D.T. Symonds, S. Jagannathan, S. Lee, and R. Nero, "Fish Population and Behavior Revealed by Instantaneous Continental-Shelf-Scale Imaging," Science, Volume 311, 660-663 February 3, (2006).
- P. Ratilal and N.C. Makris, " Mean and covariance of the forward field propagated through a stratified ocean waveguide with three-dimensional random inhomogeneities," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 118, 3532-3559 (2005).
- T. Chen, P. Ratilal and N.C. Makris, "Mean and variance of the forward field propagated through three-dimensional random internal waves in a continental-shelf waveguide," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 118, 3560-3574 (2005).
- P. Ratilal, Y. Lai, D.T. Symonds, L.A. Ruhlmann, J. Goff, C.W. Holland, J.R. Preston, E.K. Scheer, M.T. Garr and N.C. Makris, "Long range acoustic imaging of the Continental Shelf Environment: The Acoustic Clutter Reconnaisance Experiment 2001," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 117, 1977-1998 (2005).
- P. Ratilal, Y. Lai and N.C. Makris, "Validity of the Sonar Equation and Babinet's Principle in a Stratified Medium," Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 112, 1797-1816 (2002).
- A. Thode, M. Zanolin, E. Naftali, I. Ingram, P. Ratilal, and N. C. Makris, "Necessary conditions for a maximum likelihood estimate to become asymptotically unbiased and attain the Cramer-Rao lower bound. II. Range and depth localization of a sound source in an ocean waveguide," J. Acoust. Soc. Am., Vol. 112, 1890-1910 (2002).
- P. Ratilal and N.C. Makris, "Extinction theorem for object scattering in a stratified medium," Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 110, 2924-2945 (2001).
- N.C. Makris and P. Ratilal, "A unified model for reverberation and submerged object scattering in a stratified ocean waveguide," Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 108, 909-941 (2001).
- P. Ratilal, P. Gerstoft and J. T. Goh, "Subspace approach to inversion by genetic algorithms involving multiple frequencies," Journal of Computational Acoustics, Vol. 6, 99-115 (1998).
- P. Ratilal, P. Gerstoft, J.T. Goh and K.P. Yeo, "Inversion of pressure data on a vertical array to determine the seafloor geoacoustic properties," Journal of Computational Acoustics, Vol. 6, 269-289 (1998).
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