Jeffrey A. Hopwood
329 Dana Research Center
Boston MA 02115
Fax: (617) 373-8970
Professor Hopwood earned a Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering from
Michigan State University in 1990
where he studied electron cyclotron resonance plasmas. He also received the M.S. and B.S. degrees
from MSU in 1987 and 1985, respectively. He joined
IBM at the T. J. Watson Research Center in 1991 as a Post-Doctoral Fellow in the Advanced Materials
Laboratory. Following this Post-Doc, he came to Northeastern University in 1993.
Dr. Hopwood has worked primarily in the field of microwave and high-density radio frequency
plasma processing and plasma source design. He holds 7 patents on high density inductively coupled plasmas and electron cyclotron resonance
plasma generation. His current research interests include microplasmas
frequency inductively coupled plasmas. Other research interests are plasma etching and deposition processes for
integrated circuit fabrication, ionized physical vapor deposition (I-PVD), and plasma deposition of super-hard
- ECE U401, Intro to ECE Lab
- ECE U402, Electronics
- ECE U403, Electronics Lab
- ECE G201, Solid State Devices
- ECE G243, Integrated Circuit Fabrication
- ECE G291, Plasma Processing
- NER: Airborne Nanoparticle Detector, National Science Foundation
- Highly Doped Silicon, Varian Semiconductor Equipment Associates
- Ionized Physical Vapor Deposition, Intel Corporation
- Atmospheric Microplasma Research, Verionix, Inc.
Are you interested in pursuing a Ph.D. in plasma engineering with applications in ICs, MEMS, and materials? Email Prof. Hopwood at email@example.com and check out the Graduate School of Engineering homepage
for application instructions.
- J. Hopwood, F. Iza, S. Coy, and D. Fenner, A microfabricated atmospheric-pressure microplasma source operating in air, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol. 38, 1698-1703 (2005).
- Felipe Iza and Jeffrey A. Hopwood, Split-ring Resonator Microplasma: Microwave Model, Plasma Impedance and Power Efficiency, Plasma Sources - Science and Technology (Institute of Physics), Vol.14, 397-406 (2005).
- Felipe Iza and Jeffrey A. Hopwood, Self-organized filaments, striations and other non-uniformities in non-thermal atmospheric microwave excited microdischarges, IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, Vol. 33(2) 306-307 (2005).
- Xiaoji Yang and Jeffrey A. Hopwood, Physical mechanisms for anisotropic plasma etching of cesium iodide, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 96(9), 4800-4806 (2004).
- J. Hopwood and F. Iza, Ultrahigh frequency microplasmas from 1 Pascal to 1 Atmosphere, Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, Vol. 19, 1145-1150 (2004).
- D. Mao and J. Hopwood, Ionized Physical Vapor Deposition of Titanium Nitride: A Deposition Model, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 96(1), 820-828 (2004).
- F. Iza and J. Hopwood, Rotational, vibrational and excitation temperatures of a
microwave-frequency microplasma, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 32(2), (2004) (to appear)
- J. Hopwood and T. Mantei, Application-driven development of plasma source technology,
J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 21, S139 (2003).
- O. Minayeva and J. Hopwood, Langmuir probe diagnostics of a microfabricated inductively
coupled plasma-on-a-chip, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 2821 (2003).
- O. Minayeva and J. Hopwood, Microfabricated inductively coupled plasma on a chip for
molecular SO2 detection: a comparison between global model and optical emission spectrometry,
J. Anal. At. Spectr. 18, 856 (2003).
- F. Iza and J. Hopwood, Low-power microwave plasma source based on a microstrip split-ring
resonator, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 31 782 (2003).
- O. Minayeva and J. Hopwood Emission spectroscopy using a microfabricated inductively
coupled plasma on a chip, J. Anal. At. Spect. 17, 1103 (2002).
- F. Iza and J. Hopwood, Influence of operating frequency and coupling coefficient on the efficiency of microfabricated inductively coupled plasma sources,
Plasma Sources Science and Technology 11, 229 (2002).
- X. Yang and J. Hopwood, et al., Plasma Etching of Cesium Iodide, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, 20(1) 132-137 (2002).
- K. Tao, D. Mao, and J. Hopwood, Ionized Physical Vapor Deposition of Titanium Nitride: A Global Plasma Model, J. Appl. Phys., 91(7), 4040-4048 (2002).
- D. Mao, K. Tao, and J. Hopwood, Ionized Physical Vapor Deposition of Titanium Nitride: Plasma and Film Characterization, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 20(2) 379-387 (2002).
- J. Hopwood, O. Minayeva, and Y. Yin, Fabrication and characterization of a 5-mm inductively coupled plasma generator, Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B, 18(5), 2446-2451, (2000).
- J. Hopwood, A Microfabricated Inductively Coupled Plasma Generator, Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, 9(3), 309-313, (2000).
- Ionized Physical Vapor Deposition, J. Hopwood, ed., Thin Film Series Vol. 27, (Academic Press, San Diego, 2000). ISBN 0-12-533027-8
- Y. Yin, J. Messier, and J. Hopwood, Miniaturized inductively coupled plasma sources, IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, 27(5), 1516-1524, 1999.
- G. Zhong and J. Hopwood, Ionized titanium deposition into high aspect ratio vias and trenches, Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology, B 17(2), 405-409 (1999).
- J. Hopwood, Ionized physical vapor deposition of integrated circuit interconnects, invited tutorial, Physics of Plasmas 5(5) 1624 (1998).
- M. Dickson, G. Zhong, and J. Hopwood, Radial uniformity of an external-coil ionized physical vapor deposition source, Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A 16(2), 523 (1998).
- P. Sailer, P. Singhal, J. Hopwood, D. Kaeli, P.M. Zavracky, K. Warner and D.P. Vu, Creating 3D circuits using transferred films, IEEE Circuits and Devices Magazine 13(6), 27-30 (1997).
- J. Hopwood, "Plasma Assisted Deposition," in The Handbook of Nanophase Materials, A. Goldstein, Ed., pp. 141-198 (Marcel-Dekker, New York, 1997). ISBN 0-8247-9469-9
- M. Dickson and
J. Hopwood, Axially-resolved study of highly ionized physical vapor
J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15(4), 2307 (1997).
- M. Dickson, F. Qian, and J. Hopwood, Quenching of electron
temperature and electron density in ionized physical vapor
deposition, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15(2), 340 (1997).
- N. Forgotson, V. Khemka, and J. Hopwood, Inductively coupled
plasma for polymer etching of 200 mm wafers,
J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14(2), 732 (1996).
- J. Hopwood and
F. Qian, Mechanisms for highly ionized magnetron sputtering,
J. Appl. Phys. 78(2), 758 (1995).
- J. Hopwood, Planar rf
induction plasma coupling efficiency, Plasma Sources
Sci. Technol. 3, 460 (1994).
- D. L. Pappas and J. Hopwood,
Deposition of diamond-like carbon in a planar inductively coupled
plasma, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 12(4), 1576 (1994).
- S.M. Rossnagel and J. Hopwood, Metal ion deposition from
ionized magnetron sputtering discharge, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B
12(1), 449 (1994).
- S.M. Rossnagel and J. Hopwood, Magnetron
sputter deposition with high levels of metal ionization,
Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3285 (1993).
- J. Hopwood, Ion bombardment
energy distributions in a low pressure rf induction plasma,
Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 940 (1993).
- J. Hopwood, C.R. Guarnieri,
S. J. Whitehair, and J. J. Cuomo, Electromagnetic fields in an rf
induction plasma, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11, 147 (1993).
- J. Hopwood, C.R. Guarnieri, S.J. Whitehair, and J.J. Cuomo,
Langmuir probe measurements in an rf induction plasma,
J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 11(1), 152 (1993).
- J. Hopwood, Review
of inductively coupled plasmas for plasma processing,invited, Plasma
Sources Sci. Technol. 1, 109 (1992).
- J. Hopwood and J. Asmussen,
Neutral gas temperatures in a multipolar electron cyclotron
resonance plasma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2473 (1991).
- J. Hopwood, D.K. Reinhard, and J. Asmussen, Charged particle
densities and energy distributions in a multipolar ECR microwave
plasma etching source, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8(4), 3103 (1990).
- J. Hopwood, R. Wagner, D.K. Reinhard, and J. Asmussen, Electric
fields in a microwave-cavity electron-cyclotron-resonant plasma
source, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8(3), 2904 (1990).
- J. Asmussen, J. Hopwood and F.C. Sze, A 915 MHz/2.45 GHz ECR
plasma source for large area ion beam and plasma processing,
Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61(1), 250 (1990).
- J. Hopwood, D.K. Reinhard
and J. Asmussen, Experimental conditions for uniform anisotropic
etching of silicon with a microwave ECR plasma, J. Vac
Sci. Technol. B 6(6), 1896 (1988).
- J. Hopwood, D.K. Reinhard, and
J. Asmussen, Plasma etching with a microwave cavity plasma disk
source, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 6(1), 268 (1988).
- Resonant radio frequency wave coupler apparatus using higher modes, J. Asmussen and J. Hopwood, U.S. Patent 5,081,398 (January 12, 1992)
- Radio frequency induction plasma processing system utilizing a uniform-field coil, J. Hopwood, C.R. Guarnieri, S.J. Whitehair, and J.J. Cuomo, U.S. Patent 5,280,154 (January 18, 1994).
- Apparatus for enhanced inductive coupling to plasmas with reduced sputter contamination, J. Hopwood, C.R. Guarnieri, and J.J. Cuomo, U.S. Patent 5,433,812 (July 18, 1995).
- Method for enhanced inductive coupling to plasmas with reduced sputter contamination, J.J. Cuomo, C.R. Guarnieri, and J. Hopwood, U.S. Patent 5,622,635 (April 22, 1997).
- Radio frequency induction plasma processing system utilizing a uniform-field coil, J.J.Cuomo, C.R. Guarnieri, J. Hopwood, and S.J. Whitehair, European Patent EP 0 553 704 B1 (April 3, 1996).
- Apparatus and method for enhanced inductive coupling to plasmas with reduced sputter contaminaton, J.J. Cuomo, C.R. Guarnieri, and J. Hopwood, European Patent EP 0 607 797 B1 (June 18, 1997).
- Monolithic miniaturized inductively coupled plasma source, J. Hopwood , U.S. Patent No. 5,942,855 (August 24, 1999).
- Method of Coating Edges with Diamond-like carbon, J. Hopwood and D. L. Pappas, U.S. Patent No. 6,077,542 (June 20, 2000).
- Low power plasma generator, J. Hopwood and F. Iza, US Patent 6,917,165, (July 12, 2005).
Miniature Inductively Coupled Plasma Source
The image below is a 4-mm diameter inductively coupled plasma which is currently being studied to determine the spatial scaling laws of ICPs. In contrast, a 450-mm diameter ICP is also under investigation in the Plasma Engineering Lab. The large plasma source is of interest in the field of IC fabrication where 300 mm wafers will soon be the norm. The small plasma source is being investigated for MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) applications such as micro-ion engines and micro-chemical analysis systems.
A No. 2 pencil is shown next to this small ICP. Click for more info.
American Vacuum Society
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
- Program Vice-Chair, 1996 National Symposium, Philadelphia, PA
- Executive Committee Member, Thin Film Division (1996-1998)
- Program Committee Member, Thin Film Division (1995, 1997, 1998)
- Program Committee Member, Plasma Science and Technology Division (2001)
Eta Kappa Nu
- PSAC Executive Committee of the IEEE Nuclear and Plasma Science Society
- Session Organizer for Non-equilibrium Plasma Processing, the 1999 International
Conference on Plasma Science, Monterey, CA, the 2000 ICOPS, New Orleans, LA, and the 2001 PPPS, Las Vegas, NV.
- Local Organizing Committee, 1996 International Conference on Plasma Science
American Society for Engineering Education
- Faculty advisor to the Northeastern University Gamma Beta Chapter
of HKN (1994-1999)
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